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May 15
Naxos, Syros and Athens, Greece

After leaving the tourist filled island of Santorini, we traveled by ferry to the island of Naxos. Even though it was incredibly windy, it was nice to travel to an island that was not swarmed by tourists. Naxos is well known for its high quality marble. One day, we were able to tour a multi-generational, family-owned marble quarry that was cut into the side of a mountain. During our tour of the quarry, of my classmates asked the owner if he knew how far down the marble went into the mountain. He responded with, “hopefully all the way to Australia.” The quarry was an incredible site to see. While the precarious state of the Greek economy has reduced domestic demand for marble, he continues to remove large blocks of marble in anticipation of when the economy improves again. While times are tough, he reminded us, “its not like I have to water the rocks once I remove them.”

After Naxos, we were supposed to travel by ferry to Syros. This trip required us to first sail to Mykonos and then switch ships. Because the ferry arrived late to Naxos, we missed our only chance that day to reach Syros from Mykonos. Our class wasn’t too upset about this, though, because Mykonos is a very lively place. Since our ferry was departing in the afternoon, our professor did not let this unplanned stay go to waste. What was supposed to be a twenty-minute layover became a 24-hour experience that really helped with our comprehension of the regional geology of the Cyclades. Once in Syros, we looked at rocks that can only be seen in a few places around the world. When garnets are mentioned in geology courses back in Lexington, our professors almost always make a comment about how we will probably never see these in the field. We are extreme outliers in this case.

After traveling to Athens and taking a final exam, everyone in our class needed to decompress from geology. While we haven’t had long to spend in Athens, we have tried to see as many of the important sites as possible. As aspiring geologists, our spring term class has spent the last three weeks on the Greek islands of Crete, Santorini, Naxos, Mykonos and Syros, looking at rocks as “young” as several hundred thousand years old and some as “old” as 20 million years old. With a geologist’s view of time, it is easy to look at ruins over two thousand years old and think of them as “more recent history.” That being said, it didn’t take long for us to snap out of this “geology” frame of mind and marvel at how impressive it was for people to have built the Parthenon without modern equipment in less than ten years. Athens is one of the few places where you can walk through a museum and recognize multiple artifacts from history textbooks. While this trip has been very productive and fun, I think everyone in our class is ready to enjoy the last week of spring term back in Lexington.


A Gneiss Change of Pace
May 7
Santorini, Greece

After seven tiring days driving along Crete’s back roads in search of different “road cuts,” we ended our time in Crete by touring the ancient Minoan city of Knossos. It was incredible to see first-hand something I’ve only seen in middle school and high school history textbooks. The next day, we had our exam on the material we learned in Crete. While the exam was difficult and took several hours, it was one of the most enjoyable tests I’ve ever taken. This was because we were taking it overlooking Santorini’s caldera. Santorini is one of the best places in all of Greece to study various styles of volcanic eruptions.

While Santorini is incredibly beautiful, it is also crawling with cruise ship passengers during the daylight hours. Luckily for us, we were able to experience all that Santorini had to offer. We visited the archaeological site of Akrotiri that was only recently opened to the public. Akrotiri was likely a Minoan colony and is relatively well-preserved. It was buried and forgotten about in one of Santorini’s 12 major eruptions around 1,600 B.C. This eruption is widely considered to have caused the decline and eventual collapse of the Minoan civilization. Like Pompeii in 79 A.D., the eruption left the town relatively well-preserved. Paintings, sculptures and furniture have been all been recovered from the excavations. It was pretty neat seeing the oldest discovered toilet with plumbing. According to our tour guide, this technological advance was not rediscovered for another millennium!

I don’t want you to think that we haven’t been doing any geology. Today, we took a catamaran around Santorini to observe the various layers of volcanic material. It was very helpful seeing these layers, which represent different stages of individual eruptions and eruptive cycles, from a distance. One of the many perks of geology is getting to spend a significant amount of class time outdoors. The swimming, dinner, and sunset weren’t bad either! While Santorini has one main island, we still needed a van to visit certain outcrops, road cuts, and pumice quarries. Unfortunately our professor still hasn’t fully mastered stick-shift vehicles. That aside, Santorini has really help us all decompress from our busy time in Crete. Sadly, we can’t stay in Santorini forever. Tomorrow morning, we travel to the island of Naxos by ferry. Also sorry for the geology pun in the title. I couldn’t help myself!


Road Cuts in Crete
May 1
Chania, Crete, Greece

I knew I wanted to study abroad at least once during my time at W&L. Going abroad for an entire semester as a geology major is possible, but not the easiest thing to accomplish. Luckily, the department offers a regional geology course every spring term. This year’s class is in Greece.

Before arriving in the Greece three days ago, my understanding of the country’s culture, history and geology were limited to our one-credit winter term seminar, Wikipedia, and articles about their ongoing national debt crisis. I can’t say I am surprised so far about the great weather, friendly people, food and beautiful scenery. The geology is a different story. While our winter term class was great for forming a basic impression of Greece’s geologic and tectonic history, seeing it first-hand in the field has been invaluable.

Our trip began three days ago in the city of Chania, on northwest coast of the island of Crete. Our days have been spent mostly traveling between different “roadcuts” (the “walls” of a earth exposed along roads from their construction) along the rural back roads of western Crete. These have helped us interpret Crete’s complex past. The dramatic scenery, narrow winding roads, and our unfamiliarity with standard transmissions have made these trips even more interesting. Because I want this post to strike a healthy balance between being informative and interesting to someone other than a geologist, I will spare you anything too specific about the geology.

One of the most interesting things we have seen so far is the remains of the ancient harbor town of Phalasarna. The archaeological site is important geologically because sea level is currently 20 feet below where it would have been when the docks were in operation. Since global sea level has remained relatively constant for the past two thousand years, the difference in elevations is most likely from the land uplifting. After consulting with historical writings, many geologists attributed this to at least one major earthquake near Crete in 365 AD that was likely at least a magnitude 8.5.

This morning, we leave Chania and drive east to the city of Rethymnon. While the last few days have been tiring (mostly due to jet lag), our island-hopping and probably the most exciting part of the trip begins soon. Hopefully next Friday I will have more to share. Also, Happy Labor Day!

About Andrew Clements

Andrew Clements is a junior geology major from Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. When he’s not busy with school work, he tries to fish, mountain bike, and run as much as possible. Besides geology, he loves history and spends a lot of his free time learning about the surrounding area’s past.

“I am taking the Greece regional geology course because I want to learn more about Greece’s rich and complex human and geologic history and I’ve always wanted to study abroad.”

  • Class Year: 2016
  • Major: Geology
  • Hometown: Oklahoma City, OK
GEOL 373 Course Description


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May 72015

May 22
Washington, D.C.

This week started with the announcement of our group projects and presentations. Like any good spring term class, we were to present at the Spring Term Festival to share our findings to those in other classes, and those curious about our subject matter. My group decided to focus on sedimentation rates throughout history and their effects on the Chesapeake Bay and the oyster population. Our class has been focusing on the changes that humans have caused in the Chesapeake, and by studying sedimentation rates in 4 different time periods, we were able to pinpoint the unique challenges humans have brought to the water. What we found could be best summed up by the Pocahontas quote, “These white men are dangerous.” Native Americans had created a perfect balance with the land by only fishing what they needed and sticking to small scale agriculture, keeping the biodiversity and clarity of the water. When the settlers came in, they started deforesting the land and introducing non-native species in order to further agriculture. This led to the elimination of buffers, allowing sediment to freely enter the water. As time progressed, so did technology, and new methods of fishing and farming created even more pollution in the Bay and the partial obliteration of the oyster population. Now the Chesapeake Bay waters are cloudy, full of dead zones, and impaired to the point where full recovery seems unlikely, even impossible.

Luckily, classes and projects like this exist with the goal of educating people about these problems in order to make sure that we can take steps to solve them. Maryland and Virginia have already started passing legislation restricting fertilizer use and creating buffer zones to limit sediment going into the Bay. People help raise oysters to be put into the Bay in order to clean it through their filter feeding, and the Chesapeake Bay Foundation has started a Clean the Bay Day, where people help filter excess sediment in order to speed up recovery efforts.

There was really no better way to spend my Spring Term. I was able to learn more about the Chesapeake Bay and travel around Virginia in a way I wouldn’t have been able to during any other part of the school year. Geology rocks.


D.C. Daze
May 14
Washington, D.C.

I consider myself an indoor person most of the time. I do enjoy nature, but I like the benefits of air conditioning even more. Last week we took a two-day field trip to go digging for fossils and camp in Westmoreland State Park. While the fossil-hunting wasn’t as successful as I wanted it to be (the Karenosaurus will not be in existence), I did find a mako shark tooth, and there were plenty of ancient shells and bones found by walking on the beaches. The views were beautiful as well, with the sandy beaches of the Chesapeake connecting to gorgeous cliffs.

Once we arrived at the campsite, the real fun began. After three tries, I was successfully able to set up the tent with my group, and we prepared and cooked the kebobs for the dinner leading into scary stories by the fire and s’mores. The next morning was a blur of bacon, eggs and breaking down camp, but we were rewarded with lunch on the beach, where warm sand helped alleviate the pain of sleeping on gravel.

This week we stayed in D.C. the whole week. Washington, D.C. is my favorite city and I love going back every time. We started our week off in the Smithsonian Museum of American History, focusing on an exhibit of America’s use of waterways. The exhibit explained how Americans have been using the Bay for centuries, and how they depended on the Bay and its “protein factor” for their livelihood. The exhibit then explained some of the negative impacts that humans have had not only on the Bay, but on other famous waterways as well. It called for more environmental protection and awareness, exactly what we had been talking about in class.

Wednesday was our trip to an actual archaeological site on the Bay. The site is owned and operated by the Smithsonian, and our class got to see three different areas. The first site focused on prehistoric peoples and their relationship with the oyster population at that time. These peoples lived off of the Chesapeake Bay and put their trash all together in a structure called a midden. Through these middens, researchers can see what they were eating, how much, and when. Our guide took us along a trail explaining the different middens, and how through their research, they’ve discovered how much the oyster population has declined and how the water has suffered. The second site was more of what you’d expect in archaeology. Some scientists had found the remnants of a plantation and were excavating to find our its historical and ecological significance. The owners of the plantation had actually introduced many non-native species into the environment, and the pollen remains could still be found over a hundred years later. This family also highlighted the differences in living styles at the time, as their trash and anthropological leftovers were extremely different from that of the slave house, as is normally expected. There was also a flurry of activity in another nearby house/excavation site that was felt throughout the area with their agricultural changes and general adjustments to the land itself.

On Thursday, our class was lucky enough to go to the off-site storage facility owned by the Smithsonian. Anything that doesn’t fit in the actual Smithsonian Museums is sent to this facility to be put in one of five pods. Among their collection is Sitting Bull’s Winchester, used at Custer’s Last Stand in the Battle of Little Bighorn, an elephant killed by Teddy Roosevelt, a Tokugawa era bridal carrier, and an Olmec head. After being escorted around, we finished with a presentation on rising sea levels around the planet and the plight of the Chesapeake Bay oysters. The presenter was incredibly informative, as her research spans globally, studying just how much glaciers have been melting and changing the oceans. We then made a trip downtown to visit a lobbyist who works for CCL, a grassroots movement focused on getting citizens to talk to their congressmen about addressing climate change.

Friday was our final day in Washington. The last day consisted of a trip to the Museum of Natural History, one of my personal favorites. Their ocean exhibit always makes me feel grateful that enormous ancient marine predators did not share the Earth at the same time I did. We were told to focus on exhibits that explain how humans have affected the natural environment through pollution, erosion, and the introduction of non-native species; there were more than enough examples. The best part of this trip was seeing how much I had been able to learn over these past 2 weeks. In a true testament to liberal arts education, a group of non-majors were able to descend upon important geological and archaeological sites, understand the significance of everything, and look at D.C through new eyes.

Oysters are Friends, not Food
May 7
Dismal Swamp

As an Economics and Global Politics double major, I can safely say that I am not a “science person.” I’ve always been fascinated by scientists and admired their work, but knew that as soon as I was put in a lab, I would find someway to mess up the results. One of the best parts of W&L is our four-week Spring Term, where we can study intensively in a subject we might have not known about. I took this Spring Term opportunity to learn more about the Chesapeake Bay.

Being from Michigan, I’m constantly surrounded by water, but the Chesapeake Bay offers a different take on ecological history and the different problems facing the Bay. Last week we took a (rainy) trip to the Dismal Swamp, and our Professors Jill Leonard-Pingel and Euan Mitchell told us that no matter how lush the swamp looks now, it is nothing compared to its pre-logging days. Almost all of the current vegetation represented second growth as a result of restoration efforts. We also spent some time at the Brock Environmental Center, one of the homes of the Chesapeake Bay Foundation and part of the Save The Bay movement. They helped educate the class on being greener and how to help clean up the Bay.

In this class we’ve mainly been focusing on the plight of the oysters in the Chesapeake Bay, and how their populations have declined due to both anthropological and environmental reasons. John Smith writes in his Chesapeake Bay expedition notes that the oyster reefs represented a boating hazard because they were so large and numerous. Oysters were commonly sent back to England as a sign of the colony’s success and potential wealth. During the Industrial Revolution, dumping waste became more and more common along the Bay, and technological advancements made dredging a more common way to fish oysters. This led to an exponential decay both in the oyster population and the cleanliness of the water. Oysters are important to the Bay because they are able to filter the water and preserve the environment.  The majority of the water in the Bay has little to no oxygen (anoxia and hypoxia), making it hard for anything to survive and creating algal blooms that allow little to no light to enter the water. By being in this class and learning about the different dangers affecting the Bay has made me realize that everyone can use their different knowledge to solve the problem from different angles, like new technological innovations or governmental regulation. There’s still hope for the Bay and for future generations of oysters, and education is the first step.

About Karen Santana-Garces

Karen Santana-Garces is a double major in Economics and Global Politics from Livonia, Michigan. She is on the Fancy Dress Committee, a member of Washington and Lee Student Consulting, a member of Money Matters and the Michigan State Chair for Mock Convention.

“I was really interested in taking this course because I haven’t been able to take a lab science yet, and Spring Term allows for an immersive experience a regular class can’t offer with unique field trips that really give an inside to the Chesapeake Bay’s marine and geological history.”

  • Class Year: 2017
  • Major(s): Politics
  • Hometown: Livonia, MI
GEOL 105 Course Description


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